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Moctezuma I (c. 1398 – 1469), also known as Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina, Huehuemotecuhzoma or Montezuma I, was the fifth Aztec emperor. During his reign the Aztec Empire was consolidated, major expansion was undertaken and Tenochtitlan started becoming the dominant partner of the Aztec Triple Alliance.

Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – 1520), also known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin was an Aztec ruler ("huey tlatoani" of Tenochtitlan), leader of the Aztec Triple Alliance from c. 1502–1520. He is known for being the ruler of the Aztec empire at the beginning of the Spanish conquest of Mexico.

The portrayal of Moctezuma in history has mostly been colored by his role as ruler of a defeated nation, and many sources describe him as weak-willed and indecisive. The general biases of the historical sources make it difficult to ascertain anything definitive about his role during the Spanish invasion, and this has led to some controversy as to how to most accurately portray him. Recently historians have pointed to Moctezuma's many architectural, scientific, military and spiritual projects as evidence of a strong and industrious ruler.

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